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X-Ray Examples

 

Click on the thumbnails to enlarge

RETROLISTHESIS

All views in neutral upright (weight bearing) position

See Retrolisthesis of L5 x-ray for how measurements are made.

 

1    Cervical Retrolisthesis of C2, C3, C4 and Anterolisthesis of C5

 

                            Multiple levels of the spine may have listheses and in different directions

 

                            Retrolisthesis (a move backward on the vertebra below)

                            C2 on C3, C3 on C4, C4 on C5

                            Also and Anterolisthesis (a forward movement) of C5 on C6

 

 

 

 

2    Cervical Retrolisthesis C2 & C4, Anterolisthesis C7

 

        3.5 mm Retrolisthesis is seen at C2 and C4,   C7 shows an anterior slippage

        (anterolisthesis) of 3mm. This is 0.5 mm short of being classed as a

        significantly loose joint. Flexion-extension views may add the remaining

        0.5 mm movement that this neutral lateral view does not show.

 

        Both C2 and C4 singly amount to a 25 to 28% whole person impairment. 1

        These are combined using charts not added to get a whole person

        impairment.

 

 

 

SPONDYLOLISTHESIS

 

                            A Spondylolisthesis is a forward movement of one vertebra on another.

                            Where it differs from an anterolisthesis is that there is a physical fracture or

                            separation of the posterior guiding portion of the vertebra (A). This allows

                            greater displacements than if the vertebra were in tact.

 

 

 

 

 

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Reference:

1     Cocchiarella L., Andersson G., “American Medical Association Guides to the

       Evaluation of Permanent Impairment”, 5th edition, Tables 15- 3, 15-4, 15-5.


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X-ray links
Subluxation

   CERVICAL

      Normal

      Phase 1

      Phase 2

      Phase 3

      Phase 4

   Thoracic

      Normal

      Phase 1

      Phase 2

      Phase 3

      Phase 4

   Lumbar

      Normal

      Phase 1

      Phase 2

      Phase 3

      Phase 4

RETROLISTHESIS

      CERVICAL

     Thoracic

      Lumbar

SPONDYLOLISTHESIS

      Lumbar

How Measured